Carolina is a Marketing professional in London. She is passionate about writing, and design. Originally from Spain, Carolina focuses on topics such as English Grammar and Culture, Marketing, and General knowledge. As the creator of this blog she hopes learners will join the community, contribute and enjoy learning English together.
Did you know that they are called teenagers because their age number ends with “teen”? A teenager, or teen, is a young person whose age falls within the range from 13–19. A Tweener a child between the ages of about 10 and 14.
The Origin of Teenager
The earlier word for this was teener, attested in American English from 1894, and the teen had been used as a noun to mean “teen-aged person” in 1818, though this was not common before 20c.
The Origin of Tweenager
The word ‘tween‘ is often used to describe an age group of children that are in between being a child and a teenager. A young human being that is not yet technically a teenager (being less than thirteen years old), but starting to act like one—generally eight to twelve years old. These kids are often in middle school and are quickly approaching puberty and all the challenges that come with adolescence.
More words for young people
Adolescent (Latin. Adolescentia): A young person or a “pubescent” in the process of developing from a child into an adult.
Tween. Tweenie. A child between the ages of about 10 and 14.
Flapper in the 20s: a fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself and flouting conventional standards of behaviour.
Hipster in the 40s: A person who follows the latest trends and fashions, especially those regarded as being outside the cultural mainstream.
Teeny-bopper in the 60s: A young teenager, typically a girl, who keenly follows the latest fashions in clothes and pop music.
Gamer in the 70s: A person who plays video games or participates in role-playing games.
Valley girl in the 80s: A fashionable and affluent teenage girl from the San Fernando valley in southern California.
Mall rat in the 80s: A young person who frequents shopping malls, usually for social purposes.
Yuppie in the late 80s: A fashionable young middle-class person with a well-paid job.
Other interesting words
Snot-nosed kid: A person that lacks experience or is ignorant of any real world knowledge. An insult, typically used to imply that a person is young and stupid, and arrogant.
Gutter snipes: young kids that run around the streets causing trouble.
To put something in layman’s terms is to describe a complex or technical issue using words and terms that the average individual (someone without professional training in the subject area) can understand, so that they may comprehend the issue to some degree.
The origin of the Term Layman
“A person who does not belong to a particular profession or who is not expert in some field.” ‘Amateur’ ‘Secular’. It also has a somewhat less commonly known meaning of “a person who is not a member of the clergy”, which is its original definition. Layman derived from the two existing words “lay” (from the Old French “lai”, meaning “secular”) and “man”, hence the “non-cleric” meaning.
One of the Laity
If you are a member of a religious group, but you are not an ordained minister or priest, then you are a member of the laity. Sometimes members of the laity will play a role in the church service, for example, doing one of the readings or running a youth group.
people of a church who are not ordained clergy or clerics.
the common man or woman
the unlearned, untrained or ignorant as in “The Layman’s Guide to Basket Weaving”
Mayhem originally was just a legal term, but nowadays it also means a state or situation of great confusion, disorder, trouble or destruction; chaos. It could mean a messy cupboard, a fight, an unorganized situation. “The violent doing of a bodily hurt to another person,” from Anglo-French maihem (13c.), from Old French mahaigne “injury, wrong, a hurt, harm, damage;” related to mahaignier “to injure, wound, mutilate, cripple” (see maim).
Mayhem is a common lawcriminal offence consisting of the intentional maiming of another person. Under the law of England and Wales and other common law jurisdictions, it originally consisted of the intentional and wanton removal of a body part that would handicap a person’s ability to defend themselves in combat. Under the strict common law definition, initially, this required damage to an eye or a limb, while cutting off an ear or a nose was deemed not sufficiently disabling. Later the meaning of the crime expanded to encompass any mutilation, disfigurement, or crippling act done using any instrument.
How to use “mayhem” in a sentence?
During the busy holiday season, most of the stores seem to be in a constant state of mayhem.
The playground was filled with mayhem as fifty students jumped and climbed all over the equipment.
Usually, there’s a method to this kind of mayhem.
Their books seem so full of murder, mayhem, violence.
People were running and trampling, and it was mayhem.
Soldiers unable to control the mayhem have shot dead some troublemakers.
Bedrock ‘piedra angular in Spanish’ is the hard layer of rock beneath looser rocks and soil. … For example, you might say that fairness and freedom is the bedrock of a good government.
The bedrock of something is the principles, ideas, or facts on which it is based. Focus on the most important aspects of a particular situation. In construction, bedrock is the solid rock beneath the soil layer that is best to build a foundation on. Skyscrapers are best built on pillars that rest on bedrock. So, by analogy, a bedrock principle is one that forms the basis for others.
‘Let’s get down to bedrock’ so that everyone has a good grasp on the project overall before we split up to do our separate parts.
How best to promote transparency, thebedrockof trust and confidence.
Together, they form thebedrockof international human rights law.
Some people believe that the family is the bedrock of society.
Mutual trust is the bedrock of a relationship.
Honesty is the bedrock of any healthy relationship.
“Let’s get down to brass tacks” and “dead as a doornail”
In the literature on English phrases, two “metal idioms” have attracted special attention: dead as a doornail and to get (come) down to brass tacks. Fig. to begin to talk about important things; to get down to business. Brass tacks mean (1) the essentials, or (2) the basic facts, so to get down to brass tacks is to focus on the essentials. Also, get down to bedrock or the nitty gritty or cases.
‘*Let’s get down to brass tacks’ so that everyone has a good grasp on the project overall before we split up to do our separate parts.
“When you come down to ‘brass tacks’ – if we may be allowed the expression – everybody is governed by selfishness.” from the USA in January 1863, was in the Texas newspaper The Tri-Weekly Telegraph
What is a doornail?
Doornails are very large nails that, in early times, were used to strengthen doors. Workers hit the nails into doors and the sharp end came out the other side. The worker then flattened the sharp metal with a hammer to make each nail secure.
There are two theories about why doornails were called “dead.” One says that, after they were repeatedly hit, the nails became unusable for any other purpose. Another says that the force and number of times these nails were hit “killed” them, making them “dead.”
Avail as a noun appears in phrases such as to little avail, of little avail, to no avail and of no avail meaning without success or with little success. Advantage toward attainment of a goal or purpose: USE
A dud is a device, person or enterprise that fails to work properly, and or proves to be a failure or worthless.
Origin of the term
The term dates back to the 1300s when the word dudde referred to a cloak (cape) or mantle of coarse (rough) cloth. Over time, it came to refer to shabby clothing meaning worn-out or ragged clothing. It is a cognate (‘related word’) of duds (i.e., “clothing”) and dowdy (‘frumpy, not stylish’). The sense of inferiority (ragged ‘wearing rags’) denotes something that fails to function.
A dud bomb
Eventually dud became a general pejorative for something useless. For instance, a dud bomb is an ammunition round or explosive that fails to fire or detonate.
Milk Duds are a caramel candy, covered with a confectionery coating made from cocoa and vegetable oil. According to the manufacturer, the word “Milk” in the name refers to a large amount of milk in the product; the use of “dud” came about because the original aim of having a perfectly spherical piece was found to be impossible.
Instructive writing is written or spoken directions for carrying out a procedure or performing a task.
Use Imperative Mood
Instructions are usually written using the imperative verb. The imperative is formed by using the verb (the ‘action’ or ‘doing’ word) but without ‘to’ or any noun or pronoun in front of it. For example, ‘You need to mix the ingredients’ > ‘Mix the ingredients’. This type of instructions, used mostly in manuals, warning or recipes, does not say WHO has to follow the instructions. Imperative instructions are often written as a numbered or bullet list. Using linking words help to create a sequence. For instance: Firstly, Secondly, Then, Finally.
“Good instructions are unambiguous, understandable, complete, consistent, and efficient.”
Use of Modals to turn an order into a request
Modal auxiliary verbs can make orders and instructions sound more polite. For instance, ‘Could you do this?’ rather than ‘Do it’. Note that you should also include the second-person point of view: you, your, and yours and ‘let’s’ or ‘please’ if you want to sound more polite. In addition, the imperative should include the verb, but with ‘to’. For instance: Remember to, Be careful not to, Try to, Try not to, You need to, It’s important to, It helps to, Be sure to, Always, Never.
We use have to / must / should+ infinitive to talk about obligation, things that are necessary to do, or to give advice about things that are a good idea to do.
must for more personal opinions about what it is necessary to do. (Formal writing)
have to for what somebody in authority has said it is necessary to do. (Speaking)
mustn’t: you do not have a choice.
have not to: you have a choice.
Use an introductory phrase to soften the order in English
Would you mind possibly… (+ ing) (Most indirect)
Would you mind possibly moving your car? It’s parked right in front of mine.
I was hoping you could … (+ infinitive without to)
I was hoping you could spare me a few minutes this morning.
Do you think you could … (+ infinitive without to)
Do you think you could do this photocopying for me?
If you have a couple of minutes spare…
If you have a couple of minutes spare, the office needs tidying up.
I’d like you to…
I’d like you to file this correspondence for me.
I want you to…
I want you to finish this by tomorrow.
Remember to include at least one of the below. If you are giving instructions is because you know what has to be done or avoid.
What is necessary. ‘You have to’ ‘You must’ ‘ You should’ ‘You need to’